Page 1 Fasebook Group 4 Group 3 Group 8 Group 7 Image 2 Group 34 Group 47 tw vk YouTube

Space Human

To be able to live in space a human trusts their own life to very complex mechanics. Soviet and since 1950s Russian scientists, engineers and designers constantly work to make the conditions for cosmonauts better. For example, Galina Balashova was drawing interiors for the spacecraft for decades. It is necessary to provide the conditions in the spaceship to survive with comfort, which affects the efficiency of the cosmonauts. In the first place special attire, from training suits to space suits. Most of the people that are travelling into orbit get there with the help of Russian launch vehicles, and the majority of them wear Russian spacesuits.

FM-2 woven-textured anthropomorphic mannequin. USSR, Moscow region, Tomilino, 1968

FM-2 woven-textured anthropomorphic mannequin

This unusual exhibit was developed in the Research Institute of Medical and Biological Problems of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1968. The mannequin was designed for the study of the effect of space radiation on the human body. The task was complicated by the fact that for the correct assessment of the radiation dose, it was necessary for the mannequin to respond to radiation in the same way as do the tissues of the human body. This explains the unusual choice of materials: wheat and sawdust. The total weight of the mannequin was 70 kg, its height was 170 cm. According to the intention of the engineers, the mannequin had to look like Yury Gagarin. Inside the mannequin, there were about 20 channels, which accommodated dosimeters located in the areas of the most important organs. Presented here is the FM-2 mannequin that several times participated in the missions of the Soviet space program: it traveled around the moon in the «Zond-7» mission of 1969, and it circled the Earth on the «Cosmos-368» satellite in 1970.

From the collection of the Polytechnic Museum

Space suit from «Mars-500»

This suit dubbed «Orlan-E» («E» stands for «experimental») was developed on the basis of the famous «Orlan» suit by the engineers of NPP «Zvezda». Unlike the original «Orlan», the experimental «martian» version lacks the full implementation of the life-support system replaced with a ventilation system. This helped cut the weight of the suit by four times. The suit was created specifically for the program «Mars-500», during which the participants imitated living in a confined space of the spacecraft during the flight to Mars. The experiment took place between 2007 and 2011 and had three stages: the 14-day, 105-day, and 520-day isolation. During the latter, the test landings on the surface of Mars were practiced, which involved the use of the precisely tailored «Orlan-E» suits. The experiment successfully ended on November 4, 2011, when the international crew of six astronauts returned to «Earth».

From the collection of NPP "Zvezda"

TNK-3 training suit of astronaut Boris Volynov, 1976

Boris Volynov was born in 1934 in the city of Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo region. In 1952 he graduated from high school, in 1956 from Stalingrad Military Pilot School, and in 1960 he was accepted to the first cosmonaut squad. During his 30 years in the squad, Boris Volynov made two space flights. In 1969 he piloted «Soyuz-5» during the first-ever space docking of manned spacecraft. In the process of docking the cosmonauts Alexei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny Khrunov moved to «Soyuz-4» and headed back to Earth. Boris Volynov returned alone on «Soyuz-5». The accident happened at the descent stage: the equipment module failed to separate properly resulting in the added mass and changing the nature of descent from normal to ballistic. Fortunately, the main threat of the parachute malfunction was avoided, and Boris Volynov survived during the hard landing, although he was seriously injured. In the same year, he became the Hero of the Soviet Union. In 1976, Boris Volynov again flew into space on board «Soyuz-21» during its first expedition to the «Salyut-5» orbital station. Upon returning to Earth, he was awarded the heroic title for the second time. Currently, Boris Volynov holds the record for the longest stay in the cosmonaut squad — 30 years.

Shorts from the «Kentavr» antigravity suit worn by cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov during the descent of spacecraft «Soyuz T-13». «Zaschita» Center. Moscow, 1985

The effect of g-forces is dangerous for human health due to many reasons. One of them is the violation of normal blood circulation. Because of the loads, the blood rushes to the feet and the abdomen. The supply of oxygen to the brain is deteriorating, which may lead to fainting. To prevent this from happening, special antigravity suits are developed. They compress several large vessels and prevent the excessive rush of blood. The «Kentavr» antigravity suit presented here is unique, as its elastic elements create a non-inflatable compression. This makes the suit lighter and allows the astronaut to wear it freely under the standard protective «Sokol» spacesuit used by astronauts during the flight. Designed in the USSR, the «Kentavr» antigravity suit has virtually no analogs in the world. It has been used in the cosmonaut squad from the beginning of the 1980s to the present.

From the collection of the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics

TNK-1 training suit. TK-2 training suit. Moscow, 1970−1976

As the astronaut in orbit is constantly in a state of zero gravity, his muscles begin to atrophy, because they are not engaged the way they are used to on Earth. To prevent atrophy, astronauts of the space station crew exercise regularly according to the programs exclusively developed for them by their personal doctors. However, running or squatting in zero gravity is simply impossible without special tools. The TNK-1 training suit is one of them. The astronaut fastens himself to the wall or the treadmill by special elastic straps, thus creating the axial load, simulating gravity. Now he can run, squat, and even perform deadlifts. In addition to training suits, there are also special prevention suits. They create a constant strain on passive muscles, thus preventing them from atrophy.

From the collection of the Polytechnic Museum

Krechet lunar space suit. KBO-9 water-cooled suit. USSR, Moscow region, Tomilino, 1969

«Krechet» was developed by NPP «Zvezda» in the framework of the Soviet lunar program. Since it greatly differed from its American counterpart, the requirements to the suit were also totally different. This challenge allowed the developers to set several technological records. Thus, the «Krechet» suit could provide 10 hours of autonomous support for the astronaut working on the moon, which is enough for a five-kilometer walk. The suit was equipped with two independent air conditioning systems: the first one ensured steady circulation and regeneration of the atmosphere, and the other (the KBO model presented here) was responsible for the heat removal. To do this a special suit would have to be put on under «Krechet» which had a total of about 100 meters of tubes of flowing water sewn into it. Thus, it was possible to remove about 400 watts of heat. But everything comes at its price: the weight of the water suit was more than three kilograms, while the «Krechet» suit was not designed for wearing at all — it was so big and heavy that the astronaut had to "enter" it through the hatch in the back. «Krechet» was never used for its intended purpose due to the cancellation of the lunar program. However, most of its systems, including the KBO were applied in the development of the «Orlan» series of space suits, which are still used in space.

From the collection of the Polytechnic Museum

«Forel» immersion suit for rescue of water-landed astronauts

Since a lot of things may possibly go wrong during the landing to Earth, all piloted spacecraft are equipped with individual rescue equipment. The «Forel» immersion suit was developed in 1964 at the NPP «Zvezda» for the emergency landing on water. With the exception of the gloves and a helmet, the suit comes in one piece. It has a self-inflating life preserver attached to its front side plus an emergency beacon signaling device. The astronaut was supposed to wear the TZK-14 cold weather suit underneath the «Forel» suit. This way he would be able to stay afloat for 12 hours waiting for the rescue, even in the icy water. The main difficulty with using the suit was that in the case of an accident the astronaut will first need to change from the «Sokol» rescue suit to the cold weather suit, and then put on the immersion suit. All this in a very confined space of the lander, where there is barely five cubic meters of the relatively free space for three crew members. To overcome this difficulty, before the flight the astronauts get mandatory training, where they get not only some bruises but also an invaluable experience of survival in the event of an emergency landing.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

«Soyuz» cold weather space suit, 2005−2010

To handle the landing in remote places all space landers are equipped with the survival equipment. It includes the portable set of emergency tools, supplies and drinking water plus some individual rescue gear, for example, the «TZK-14» cold weather suit and the «Forel» immersion suit. The former consists of a jumpsuit, a jacket, and a helmet. In this suit, the astronaut can withstand temperatures of minus 50 degrees and a wind of 10 meters per second for three days. Wearing «TZK-14» along with the immersion suit the astronaut can stay afloat in the water of a temperature of minus 1 degree for up to 12 hours until help arrives.

At descent, the astronaut has to change from the «Sokol» suit to the cold weather suit which can be rather complicated in a very confined space of the lander. Therefore, prior to the flight, the crew members undergo special training in the real conditions.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

Astronaut’s sleeping bag from «Mir» station, 2010

The space sleeping bag differs from those which are known to tourists on Earth. In zero gravity situation there is no «down» or «up», thus casual items like cushions become obsolete. The human head does not get to rest upon anything because no force is pulling it down. However, the mandatory elements of a space sleeping bag are straps and buckles that allow the astronauts to fasten themselves reliably to the walls of the ship, which, in turn, are covered with a soft material. If the astronaut was floating freely in his sleep, he would inevitably wake up from collisions with surrounding walls. So, when he is fastened he does not need to worry about that. Moreover, in space the astronauts do not really go to bed, they just close their eyes and relax their muscles while their hands usually float freely at chest level. It also happens that some astronauts can not get used to sleeping in orbit. In this case, the sleeping pills from the medical supplies pack of the space station are at their disposal.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

«Orlan-DMA» space suit № 18, 1988

Space suit from «Mars-500», «Orlan-DMA» space suit № 18 and Krechet lunar space suit. KBO-9 water-cooled suit

The «Orlan» series of space suits for work in open space has been in development at the NPP «Zvezda» from the mid-1970s to the present time. During this period six versions were produced, the DMA model being the third of them. All «Orlan» suits have a semi-rigid construction, which is the legacy of the «Krechet» space suit designed for the lunar program. The advantage of the semi-rigid construction lies in the fact that the suit does not require individual fitting for each particular astronaut. That is why since the times of the first «Salyut» space station the «Orlan» suits were kept directly in orbit and the crew brought with them only individually tailored gloves. The «Orlan-DMA» space suit has a mass of 105 kg and ensures up to 7 hours of work in open space. It has been in use on «Mir» from 1988 to 1997, then it was replaced by the improved «Orlan-M» model.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

21KS Cosmonaut maneuvering unit, 1988

These units were intended for «free» spacewalks, without the need to cling to the hull of the ship, as it is most often the case during the repair work. The first devices of this type were handheld and they looked like a gun. In order to move in one direction, the cosmonaut had to fire the compressed gas in the opposite direction. The improved designs, such as 21KS, provided full autonomy. The cosmonaut would be actually attached to the 180 kilograms backpack, in which two cylinders with compressed air were placed. Equipped with 32 nozzles and two operation modes (economy and forced), the unit was able to send the cosmonaut in any direction. However, the downside was that the cosmonaut’s hands had to be tightly fastened to control panels so that he could not perform any other work. The 21KS unit was used in outer space only twice: by cosmonauts Alexander Serebrov and Alexander Viktorenko on February 1 and 5, 1990. There were plans to actively use it on «Buran», but due to the termination of the program these plans had to be postponed.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

«Kazbek» amortization chair

During the manned flight, the astronaut spends most of the time in a chair inside the descent module. That is why special attention is given to designing this part of the ship. "Kazbek" consists of two main parts: the amortization chair itself and the lodgment, which is made according to individual physical features of every cosmonaut. The task of the whole structure is to ensure maximum comfort for the astronaut during all stages of the flight, especially during the g-forces of acceleration and deceleration, as well as at the landing. To lighten the design, many of the chair parts are made of titanium, so the total weight including the lodgment does not exceed 30 kilograms. Similar amortization chairs of «Kazbek-D» modification are used in airborne fighting vehicles to compensate loads at the landing.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»

Sokol KB-2 space rescue suit

The «Sokol» series of space suits, developed in the NPP «Zvezda» has been used by all «Soyuz» crews since 1973. The main purpose of the suit is to protect the astronaut in the event of the depressurization of the descent module. To do this, in a regular situation the suit is connected to the onboard ventilation system of the spaceship, which in the case of the depressurization starts to supply pure oxygen directly into the suit. In this emergency mode it can run up to two hours, and in the regular mode, it can last up to 30 hours. The space suit weighs about 10 kilograms and it is not intended for spacewalks. The shell of «Sokol» consists of two layers: the external protection layer and the internal airtight layer, which provides necessary ventilation conditions. The suits of this series are manufactured individually for each astronaut, unlike the «Orlan» space suits which are kept on the space station and fit any astronaut.

From the collection of NPP «Zvezda»